LENSBALL and refraction
Not long ago I collaborated with a lensball provider, Refractique. One of my photographs taken with the lens ball is focused on their website. This website - http://refractique.com/ - gives a great overview on refraction in photography; and there is an extract defining refraction below. Their website is highly recommended. Other images are on Refractique's Facebook site.
Lensballs are not expensive but are a great accessory for your photography allowing experimentation and application of refraction techniques to generate interesting 3D effects.
You may also follow Refractique on Instagram at https://www.instagram.com/refractique/